Multics Programmer's Reference Manual

Company:Honeywell Information Systems Inc.
Part:AG91-04
Date:1985-02
Keywords:
Amended by:
Supersedes:

Table of Contents

  • Section 1 Multics Concepts and Characteristics
    • System Concepts
    • System Characteristics
      • Segments
      • Virtual Memory
      • Paging
      • Process
    • Selective Sharing
      • Access Control List
      • Access Isolation Mechanism
      • Ring Structure
    • System Administration
    • User Interfaces
    • Environment Shaping
    • System Software
      • PL/I
      • FORTRAN
      • BASIC
      • COBOL
      • APL
      • PASCAL
      • ALM
      • Qedx
      • Ted
      • Emacs
      • Communications Software
      • Sort/Merge
      • GCOS Environment Simulator
      • Multics Graphics System
      • Multics Data Base Manager
      • Multics Report Program Generator
      • Logical Inquiry and Update System
      • Word Processing
      • Extended Mail Facility
      • Executive Mail
      • Forum
      • Executive Forum
      • Transaction Processing Tools
      • The FAST/DFAST Facility
      • Menu Creation Facilities
      • Inter-Multics File Transfer Facility
      • Report Writer
      • File Transfer To and From Personal Computers
      • Other Support Facilities and Tools
    • Access to the System
    • Service to Large and Small Users
    • System Design
      • Continuous Operation
      • System Reliability
    • Glossary of Multics Terms
  • Section 2 Multics Storage System
    • Segment References
    • Logical Volumes
      • Logical Volume Attachment
      • Master Directories
    • Storage System Entry Types
      • Segment
      • Directory
      • Link
      • Multisegment File
      • Data Management File
      • Extended Entry Types
    • Entry Attributes
    • System Directories
  • Section 3 Naming, Command Language, and Terminal Usage
    • Constructing and Interpreting Names
      • Entrynames
      • Pathnames
      • Archive Component Pathnames
      • Star Names
        • Constructing Star Names
        • Interpreting Star Names
      • Equal Names
        • Constructing Equal Names
        • Interpreting Equal Names
      • Archive Component Pathnames and Equal Names
      • Reference Names
      • Entry Point Names
      • Commmand, Subroutine, Condition, and I/O Switch Names
      • Request IDs
      • Date/Time Names
        • Date/Time Input Values
          • Time Strings (DT Values)
        • Date/Time Output Values
          • Time Format
          • List of Format Keywords
    • Command Language
      • Command Environment
      • Simple Command Line
      • Compound Command Line
      • Reserved Characters and Quoted Strings
      • Iteration
      • Active Strings
      • Concatenation
    • Typing Conventions
      • Canonical Form
      • Canonicalization
      • Column Assignment
      • Overstrike Canonicalization
      • Overstrike Canonicalization Examples
      • Replacement Canonicalization
      • Replacement Canonicalization Examples
      • Erase and Kill Characters
      • Examples of Erase and Kill Processing
      • Escape Sequences
    • Typing Convention Examples
      • Column Canonicalization Examples
      • Erase, Kill, and Escape Examples
    • Terminal Output
      • Carriage Motion
      • Delays
      • Output Escape Sequences
      • Continuation Lines
      • End-of-Page Processing
    • Escape Conventions on Various Terminals
      • Selectric Devices
      • Upper-Case-Only Devices
      • Execuport 300
      • CDI Model 1030
    • Flow Control
      • Input Flow Control
      • Output Flow Control
    • Block Transfer
  • Section 4 Multics Programming Environment
    • Program Preparation
      • Programming Languages
      • Creating and Editing the Source Segment
      • Creating an Object Segment
      • Object-Segment Format
      • Debugging Facilities
      • Writing a Command
      • Writing an Active Function
    • Address Space Management
      • Dynamic Linking
      • Search Rules
      • Binding
      • Making a Segment Known
      • Address Space Management Subroutines
    • Multics Stack Segments
      • Stack Header
      • Stack Frames
      • Combined Linkage Region
    • Clock Services
      • Access to System Clocks
      • Facilities for Timed Wakeups
    • Writing a Process Overseer
      • Process Initialization
      • Process Overseer Functions
      • Some Notes on Writing a Process Overseer
      • Direct Process Overseers
      • Handling of Quit Signals
    • Creating an Extended Entry
    • Interactive Subsystem Programming Environment
      • Subsystem Invocations
        • Use of sci_ptr and info_ptr in Interactive Subsystems
        • Stand-Aline Invocations
        • Monitoring Subsystem Usage
      • The Subsystem Environment
        • Subsystem Request Loop
        • Subsystem Request Languaeg
          • Modifying the Standard Request Processor
          • The rp_options Structure
          • Defining a Request Language
          • Abbreviation Processing
        • Writing Subsystem Requests
          • Argument Processing
          • Error Handling
          • The Apply Request
          • Subsystem Requests and Multics Commands
        • Subsystem Areas and Temporary Segments
        • Using exec_coms in Subsystems
        • Tailoring the Subsystem Environment
          • Replaceable Procedures for cpescape and unknown_request
          • Request Loop Replaceable Procedures
          • Other Replaceable Procedures
      • Subsystem Documentation Facilities
        • Subsystem Info Segments and Directories
        • Using the Standard Requests Info Segments
      • Subsystem Debugging Facilities
      • Subsystem Request Tables
        • Standard Requests and Standard Request Tables
          • Using Standard Requests
        • Defining Request Tables
        • Using the Request Macros
          • Syntax
          • The request Macro
          • The set_default_flags Macro
          • The unknown_request Macro
          • The multics_request Macro
          • The set_default_multics_flags Macro
          • The set_default_multics_doc Macro
  • Section 5 Input and Output Facilities
    • Multics Input/Output System
      • System Input/Output Modules
      • How to Perform Input/Output
      • Input/Output Switches
        • Attaching a Switch
        • Opening a Switch
        • Closing a Switch
        • Detaching a Switch
        • Synonym Attachments
        • Standard Input/Output Switches
        • Initialization of External Pointer Variables
      • Interrupted Input/Output Operations
    • Programming Language Input/Output Facilities
    • File Input/Output
      • Unstructured Files
      • Sequential Files
      • Blocked Files
      • Indexed Files
      • File Opening
      • File Closing
      • File Position Designators
    • Terminal Input/Output
      • tty_ Support
      • window_io_ Support (the Video System)
        • What is a Window
        • Window Capabilities
          • Positioning the Cursor
          • Selective Erasure
          • Scrolling
          • Selective Alteration
          • Miscellaneous
        • Real-Time Editing
          • The Erase Character
          • The Kill Character
          • The Line Editor
          • Moving the Cursor
          • Deleting Characters and Words
          • Retrieving Deleted Text
          • Other Editor Requests
        • Writing Editor Extensions
          • Line Editor Routines
          • Window Editor Utilities
        • End-Of-Window Processing
        • More Processing
        • Output Buffering
        • Structure of the Video System
          • I/O Modules
          • Subroutines
          • Command
        • Using the Video System
          • Attaching the Video System
          • Detaching the Video System
          • Design Requirements for Windows
          • Create Window Operation
          • Important Window Requests
          • Change Window Operation
          • Destroy Window Operation
          • Clear Window Operation
    • Magnetic Tape Input/Output
      • Magnetic Tape Input/Output in Releases Previous to MR 11.0
      • Magnetic Tape Input/Output in MR 11.0
    • Bulk Input and Output
      • Printed Output
        • Vertical Format Control
      • Punched-Card Output
      • Punched-Card Input
        • Access Required for Card Input
          • Card Input Registration and Password
          • Card Input Access Control Segment
          • Station Access Control Segment
        • Control Card Information
        • Bulk Data Input
          • Control Card Format of a Card Deck for Bulk Data Input
        • Remote Job Entry
          • Format of a Card Deck for Remote Job Entry
        • Remote Job Entry with Foreign Computer Systems
          • Submitting Card Decks to a Remote System
          • Receiving Output from a Remote System
          • Format of an Output File Transmitted to Multics for Online Perusal
    • Implementation of Input/Output Modules
      • I/O Control Blocks
        • I/O Control Block Structure
        • Attach Pointers
        • Open Pointers
        • Entry Variables
        • Synonyms
      • Writing an I/O Module
        • Design Considerations
        • Implementation Rules
        • Attach Operation
        • Open Operation
        • Close Operation
        • Detach Operation
        • Modes and Control Operations
        • Performing Control Operations From Command Level
        • Other Operations
        • Outer Modules
    • Resource Control Package
      • Relationship of RCP to Other I/O Facilities
      • Summary of RCP Actions
        • Reservation, Assignment, and Attachment
          • Resource Reservation
          • Device Assignment
          • Device Attachment
        • Device Limits
        • Resource Naming Conventions
          • Device Names
          • Volume Names
        • I/O Workspaces
    • Resource Management Facility
      • Summary of Resource Management Facility Actions
        • Acquiring Resources
        • Naming Rules for Attributes
    • Access Control Interface with RCP and Resource Management
      • Access Control Segments
      • Access Class Ranges
      • RCP Effective Access
      • Manipulating RCP Effective Access
  • Section 6 Multics Security
    • User Names and Passwords
    • Access Control Lists
      • Objects Subject to Access Control
      • Access Identifier
      • Access Modes
        • Access Modes on Entries in the Storage System
        • Access Modes on Resources Protected by RCP
        • Access Modes on Communications Channels
        • Access Modes on Daemon Source Names
      • Creating, Modifying, Listing, and Deleting Items in an Access Control List
      • Granting Access to Groups of Individuals
        • Using the Asterisk Character
        • Missing Components
      • Calculating Access Rights
      • Initial ACLs
        • SysDaemon Entries
        • ACL Entry for the Creating User
        • User-Defined Initial ACLs
      • Access Control Segments
        • Access Control Segments for RCP Resources
        • Access Control Segments for Communications Channels
        • Access Control Segments for Daemon Source Names
    • Access Isolation Mechanism
      • AIM Classification System
      • Policy Rules and Objectives
      • Relationships Between AIM Attributes
      • Setting AIM Attributes
        • Enabling AIM
        • Marking of Data
          • Segment
          • Directory
          • Message Segment
          • Mailboxes
        • Marking of Users
        • Marking of RCP Resources
        • Marking of Communication Channels
      • AIM Access Rules
        • Segments
        • Directories
        • Message Segments
        • Interprocess Communication
      • Inter-System AIM
    • The Ring Mechanism
      • Advantages of the Ring Mechanism
      • Ring Attributes and Access Control
        • Ring Brackets
          • Write Bracket
          • Read Bracket
          • Execute Bracket
          • Gate Bracket
        • Null Access
      • Using the Ring Mechanism
      • Implementing Ring Protection
        • Setting Segment Ring Brackets
        • Modifying Segment Ring Brackets
        • Directory Ring Bracket Validation Level and Access Rights
          • Validation Level
          • Directory Ring Bracket Access Rights
        • Setting Directory Ring Brackets
        • Modifying Directory Ring Brackets
        • User Ring Brackets
    • Trusted Path
  • Section 7 Handling Unusual Occurrences
    • Printed Messages
    • Status Codes
      • Creation of Status Code Tables
    • List of System Status Codes and Meanings
    • Conditions
      • Multics Condition Mechanism
      • Example of the Condition Mechanism
      • On Unit Activated by All Conditions
      • Continuation of Search
      • Interaction with the Multics Ring Structure
      • Nonstandard Location of On Unit for Special Conditions
      • Action Taken by the Default Handler
      • System Condition Wall
      • Signalling Conditions in a User Program
      • Obtaining Additional Information About a Condition
      • Machine Condition Data Structure
      • Information Header Format
      • PL/I Condition Data Structure
    • System Conditions and Default Handler
      • List of System Conditions
    • Nonlocal Transfers and Cleanup Procedures
    • Epilogue Handling
    • Faults
      • Simulated Faults
        • Null Pointer
        • Process Termination Fault
        • Undefined Pointer Fault
  • Section 8 Backup
    • Dumping
      • Incremental Dumps
      • Consolidated Dumps
      • Complete Dumps
    • Recovery
  • Section 9 Administrative Controls
    • Administrative Hierarchy
      • System Administrators
      • Project Administrators
      • Users
    • Administrative Capabilities
      • Pricing
        • Interactive and Foreground Absentee Usage
        • Background Absentee Usage
        • I/O Daemon Usage
        • Other Charges
      • Apportioning System Capacity
        • Load-Control Groups
        • Work Classes
      • Access Control
        • Gate Access
        • Device Access
        • Volume Access
        • Absentee and Daemon Queues
      • Storage Quota
  • Section 10 Multics Data Management
    • Introduction
      • Features and Benefits of Multics Data Management
    • Data Management Files
      • Creating Data Management Files
      • Data Management Files as Protected Entities
      • Accessing Data Management Files
      • Manipulating Data Management Files
    • Using MRDS with Data Management
      • Building an MRDS Data Management Database
      • Using MRDS Applications with DM Files
    • Data Storage and Retrieval Services
      • Relation Manager
        • The Relation Manager and MRDS Database Requests
        • Relations and Data Management Files
      • Record Manager
      • Index Manager
      • Collection Manager
      • File Manager
        • File Manager and DM File Manipulation
        • File Manager and Integrity Services
        • File Manager as a Direct Interface
    • Integrity Services
      • Transactions and Database Consistency
        • Defining Transactions
        • Building Transactions in Existing MRDS Applications
          • Transaction Definition Table
      • Concurrent Access Control
        • Locking Conventions
        • Deadlock Detection and Resolution
      • Recovery Procedures
        • Transaction Failure
        • Process Failure
          • Role of the Daemon
          • Abandoning a Transaction
        • Crash Recovery
        • Conventions and Use of Before Journals
          • Creating and Opening Before Journals
          • Manipulating Before Journals in the File System
      • DMS Initialization
      • DMS Shutdown
        • DMS Shutdown as Part of a Multics Shutdown
        • DMS Shutdown as a Privileged Request
        • Shutdown Information
          • User Warning
          • Begin Shutdown
          • User Shutdown
          • User Bump Time
          • Daemon Logout
    • Administering Data Management
      • Installation Considerations
      • Creating a Data Management System Directory
      • Shaping the Run-Time Environment
      • Daemon Registration
      • AIM Considerations
      • Monitoring Performance
    • Command Level Interface to Data Management
      • User Commands
      • Administrative Commands
  • Appendix A Multics Character Sets
    • ASCII Character Set
      • Printing Graphic Characters
      • Control Characters
      • Nonstandard Control Character
      • Unused Characters
    • Multics Extended Character Set
  • Appendix B Defining Terminals and Naming Channels Within the Multics Communications System
    • Terminals and Channels
    • Attachments
    • Data Transformation
    • Terminal Type Concept
      • Terminal Type and Line Type
    • Terminal Type Table and Terminal Type File
      • Setting Terminal Types
      • Changing Terminal Type Definitions
      • Terminal Type Table
    • Syntax of the TTF
      • Generalized Character Specifications
      • Terminal Type Entry
      • Video Table Definition
      • Modes Operation
      • Global Statements
      • Conversion Table Entry
      • Translation Table Entry
      • Function Key Table Entry
      • Example
      • Special Characters Table Entry
      • Default Types
      • Answerback Table
      • Preaccess Commands
      • Examples
    • Names of Communications Channels
      • T & D Channel
      • Examples
  • Appendix C Punched-Card Input Output and Returned Output Control Records
    • Bulk Data Input
    • Control Cards for Bulk Data
      • ++DATA
      • ++PASSWORD
      • ++AIM
      • ++FORMAT
      • ++CONTROL
      • ++INPUT
    • User Data Cards
    • Remote Job Entry
      • Example of Remote Job Entry
    • Control Cards for Remote Job Entry
      • ++RJE
      • ++PASSWORD
      • ++RJECONTROL
      • ++RJEARGS
      • ++EPILOGUE
      • ++ABSIN
      • ++FORMAT and ++INPUT
      • User Absentee Commands
      • Card Formats
      • Card Input Conversion Modes
      • Deck Size
      • Errors
    • Punched Card Output
      • Card-Output Conversion Modes
    • Punched-Card Codes
    • Card-Input Escape Possibilities
    • Returned Output Control Records
      • ++IDENT
      • ++CONTROL
      • ++FORMAT
      • ++INPUT
  • Appendix D Standard Data Types
    • Summary of Data Descriptor Types
      • Symbolic Names for Data Descriptor Types
        • Other Symbolic Names
    • Standard Data Type Formats
      • Arrays
  • Appendix E List of Names with Special Meanings
    • Reserved I/O Switch Names
    • Reserved Segment Names
    • Reserved Segment-Name Suffixes
    • Reserved Object-Segment Entry Point
  • Appendix F Multics Standard Magnetic Tape Format
    • Standard Tape Format
    • Standard Record Format
    • Physical Record Header
    • Physical Record Trailer
    • Administrative Records
      • Standard Tape Label Record
      • Bootable Tape Label Record
      • End of Reel Record
    • Density and Parity
    • Data Padding
    • Compatibility Consideration
    • Standard Checksum
      • Algorithm
  • Appendix G Multics Standard Object Segment with Symbol Table Organization
    • Format Of An Object Segment
    • Structure of the Text Section
      • Entry Sequence
      • Gate Segment Entry Point Transfer Vector
    • Structure of the Definition Section
      • Definition Section Header
      • Expression Word
      • Type Pair
      • Trap Word
      • Initialization Structure for Type 5 System and Type 6 Links
      • Definition Hash Table
    • Structure of the Static Section
    • Structure of the Linkage Section
      • Linkage Section Header
      • Internal Storage Area
      • Links
      • First-Reference Trap
    • Structure of the Symbol Section
      • Symbol Block Header
      • Source Map
      • Relocation Information
    • Structure of the Object Map
    • Generated Code Conventions
      • Text Section
        • Entry Sequence
        • Text Relocation Codes
      • Definition Section
        • Definition Relocation Codes
        • Implicit Definitions
      • Linkage Section
        • Internal Storage
        • Links
        • Linkage Relocation Codes
      • Static Section
      • Symbol Section
    • Structure of Bound Segments
      • Internal Link Resolution
      • Definition Section
      • Binder Symbol Block
      • Bind Map
    • Symbol Table Organization
      • The PL/I Symbol Block
      • The PL/I Runtime Symbol Table
        • The Runtime_Token Node
        • The Runtime_Block Node
        • The Entry Info Block
        • The Pascal "with" Block
        • The Runtime_Symbol Node
          • Encoded Values
          • Controlled Variable Control Block
          • Picture Information Block
      • The Pascal Runtime Symbol Node
        • Additional Information About Pascal Symbol Nodes
        • Special Runtime Symbol Data Type Codes
      • The Statement Map
  • Appendix H Standard Execution Environment
    • Standard Stack and Link Area Formats
      • Multics Stack
      • Stack Header
      • Multics Stack Frame
      • Linkage Offset Table
      • Internal Static Offset Table
    • Subroutine Calling Sequences
      • Call Operator
      • Entry Operator
      • Push Operator
      • Return Operator
      • Short Return Operator
      • Pseudo-op Code Sequences
      • Register Usage Conventions
      • Argument List Format
      • Parameter Descriptors
  • Appendix I Data Base Descriptions
    • Name
    • Usage
    • sys_info
    • whotab
  • Appendix J Standard Request Tables and Standard Requests
    • Standard Request Tables
    • Standard Requests

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Amended to: AG91-04A, Multics Programmer's Reference Manual Addendum A (1987-01)
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