EduSystem Handbook

Company:Digital Equipment Corporation
Part:083.00173.2306 H-09-25
Date:1973-01
Keywords:PDP-8

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Teach Yourself BASIC
    • Introduction
      • Teletype Keyboard
    • Getting Acquainted With BASIC
      • Numerical Expressions
      • The PRINT Statement
      • Floating Point Numerals
      • Printing Messages
      • Exponents -- Computing the Power of a Number
    • Gathering Speed
      • Variables
      • Variable Expressions
    • Feeding the Beast
      • The INPUT Statement
      • The GO TO Statement
      • READ and DATA Statements
      • The RESTORE Statement
      • More Messages
    • You Can Count on It
      • Loops
      • Loops Exposed
      • FOR-NEXT Loops
      • The STEP Clause
      • Variable FOR Statements
      • Extra for Experts
    • Function Junction
      • The Integer (INT) Function
      • The Square Root (SQR) Function
    • Finding Your Way
      • Flowcharts
      • FOR-NEXT Loops in a Flowchart
    • Making Decisions
      • A Fork in the Road
      • The IF Statement
    • Varying Patterns
      • Rectangular Patterns
      • The TAB Function
    • Meandering
      • Random Numbers
      • Constellations
    • Little Boxes
      • Subscripted Variables
      • Generalizing
      • Variable Subscripts
      • Subroutines
    • Snoopy and the Red Baron
      • No Opinion
      • More Choices
      • Generation Gap
      • Reprise
    • Kaleidoscope
      • Coin Tosser
      • Dice
      • 23 Matches
      • Rounding a Number
      • Miscellaneous Math
      • Say Something in Trigonometry
      • Do It Yourself Functions
    • Past and Future BASIC
  • Chapter 2 EduSystem 5
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Line Numbers
      • Single-Character PRINT Command
      • Multiple Statements Per Line
      • Immediate Mode
      • INPUT Statement
    • Program Editing
    • Error Messages
    • Operating Instructions
      • Initial Installation
      • Turning Off the System
      • Restarting the System
      • Reloading the Functions
      • Saving Programs on Paper Tape
      • Reloading Program From Paper Tape
  • Chapter 3 EduSystem 10
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Line Numbers
      • Single-Character PRINT Command
      • Multiple Statements per Line
      • Immediate Mode
      • INPUT Statement
    • Program Editing
    • Error Messages
    • Operating Instructions
      • Initial Installation
      • Turning Off the System
      • Restarting the System
      • Reloading the Functions
      • Saving Programs on Paper Tape
      • Reloading Programs From Paper Tape
  • Chapter 4 EduSystem 15
    • Introduction
      • System Components
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Entering Programs
      • Using Random Numbers
      • Listing the Program
      • Executing the Program
      • Privileged Control Commands
      • DECtape System Storage Capability
    • Advanced System Capabilities
      • Running Very Long Programs
      • Using a Data File
      • Character Variables and String Capability
    • Program Editing
    • Error Messages
      • Program Loading Errors
      • Coding Errors
      • Program Logic Errors
    • Operating Instructions
      • Loading the System
        • Initialize the DECtape Unit
        • Initialize Computer Memory
      • System Building Dialog
        • Diagnostic Messages During System Building
      • Turning off the System
      • Restarting the System
      • Saving Programs on Paper Tape
      • Reloading Programs from Paper Tape
  • Chapter 5 EduSystem 20
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • EduSystem 20 BASIC
      • Abbreviated Commands
      • Multiple Statements per Line
      • Immediate Mode
      • INPUT Statement
      • Comments
      • Subscripted Variables
      • IF THEN Statement
      • Truncation Function (FIX)
      • CHR$ Function
      • ON GOTO Statement
      • ON GOSUB Statement
      • RANDOMIZE Statement
    • Error Messages
    • Program Editing
    • Operating Instructions
      • Loading EduSystem 20 BASIC
      • Initial Dialog
      • System Reconfiguration
      • System Shutdown
      • System Restart
      • Program Storing Procedures
        • Teletype Paper Tape Punch
        • High-Speed Punch
      • Program Reloading Procedures
        • Teletype Paper Tape Reader
        • High-Speed Reader
  • Chapter 6 EduSystem 25
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Abbreviated Commands
      • Multiple Statements per Line
      • Immediate Mode
      • INPUT Statement
      • Comments
      • IF THEN Statement
      • ON GOTO Statement
      • ON GOSUB Statement
      • RANDOMIZE Statement
      • Truncation Function (FIX)
    • Extended System Capabilities
      • String Variables
        • Reading String Data
        • Printing Strings
        • Inputting Strings
        • Line Input
        • Working with Strings
        • String Functions
          • CHR$ Function
          • MID Function
          • LEN Function
          • CAT Function
      • Program Storage/Retrieval
        • Storing User Programs
        • Retrieving User Programs
        • Running Very Long Programs
        • Deleting Stored Programs
        • Using Public Library Programs
      • Data File Storage/Retrieval
        • Creating Data Files
        • Reading Data Files
        • Listing Data Files
        • Erasing Data Files
        • Using Public Data Files
    • Error Messages
    • Program Editing
    • Operating Instructions
      • Loading EduSystem 25
        • Initialize the DECtape Unit
        • Initialize Computer Memory
        • Answer System Dialog
        • Establish Terminal Extensions
        • Create Data File Tape
      • Maintaining the Public Library
      • Protecting DECtape Files
      • Storing Programs on Paper Tape
      • Reloading Programs from Paper Tape
      • System Reconfiguration
      • System Shutdown
      • System Restart
  • Chapter 7 EduSystem 30
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Using Random Numbers
      • Running Long Programs
      • Using a Data File
      • Character Variables and String Capability
    • Using the Interactive Terminal
      • Entering a Program
      • Using Multiple Statements per Line
      • Listing the Program
      • Executing the Program
      • Loading a Card Program for Interactive Use
      • Storing Programs on Paper Tape
      • Reloading Programs from Paper Tape
      • Privileged Control Commands
      • Using the System Storage Capability
        • SAVE and UNSAVE Commands
        • CATALOG Command
        • LENGTH Command
        • OLD Command
      • Returning to Batch Mode
      • Program Editing
    • Writing and Running Card Programs
      • Writing a Program on Cards
        • Line Numbers
        • BASIC Statements
        • Statement Operand
        • Summary of Card Marking Procedure
      • Submitting a Program to be Run
        • The NEW Card
        • The LIST Card
        • The RUN Card
        • Summary
      • Getting the Results of a Computer Run
      • Using a Stored Program
      • Interacting with the Operator
      • Editing and Rerunning a Program
      • Inserting Messages in the Program Printout
      • Sample Program
        • Problem
        • Procedures
        • Printed Results
    • Executing Card Programs
      • Normal Batch Operation
      • Executing Card Programs Individually
      • Controlling a Batch Run
        • BATCH Command
        • MAX Command
        • HEADER Command
        • STACK Command
        • LOG Command
      • Hands-On Interaction Versus Batch
    • Error Messages
      • Batch Mode Program Loading Errors
      • Interactive Mode Program Loading Errors
      • Coding Errors
      • Program Logic Errors
    • Operating Instructions
      • Loading EduSystem 30
        • Initialize the DECdisk
        • Initialize the DECtape Unit
        • Initialize Computer Memory
      • System Building Dialog
        • Diagnostic Messages During System Build
      • Turning Off the System
      • Turning On the System
      • Restarting EduSystem 30
        • DF32 or RF08 Disk
        • TC01 DECtape
        • TD8E DECtape
      • Using Optional Hardware
        • LP08 Line Printer
        • High-Speed Paper Tape Reader/Punch
        • Punched Card Input
    • Calculating Available Storage
  • Chapter 8 EduSystem 40
    • Introduction
      • System Components
      • System Expansion
    • BASIC Language Capabilities
      • Advantages and Applications
        • EduSystem 20
        • EduSystem 30
    • Language Summaries
      • BASIC Statements and Commands
      • Batch Control Cards
      • BASIC Functions and Arithmetic Operations
    • Error Message Summaries
      • EduSystem 20
      • EduSystem 30
        • Batch Mode Program Loading Errors
        • Interactive Mode Program Loading Errors
        • Coding Errors
        • Program Logic Errors
    • Loading and Operating Instructions
      • Initializing the DECdisk
      • Building EduSystem 40 on Disk
      • Starting EduSystem 40
  • Chapter 9 EduSystem 50
    • Introduction
      • User Programs
      • User Files
      • System Configuration
      • System Expansion
    • EduSystem 50 Monitor
      • Calling the Monitor
      • Logging into EduSystem 50
      • Logging out of EduSystem 50
      • System Library Program Control
      • Communication with Other Users
      • System Status Reports
      • Resource Sharing
      • Error Messages
    • System Library Programs
      • General File Characteristics
      • Controlling the Execution of System Library Programs
      • Returning to the Monitor
    • BASIC
      • Truncation Function, FIX(X)
      • ON GOTO Statement
      • SLEEP Statement
      • Comments
      • Blank Lines
      • Multiple Statements per Line
      • Editing BASIC Statements
      • Saving Compiled Programs
      • File Protection
      • Project-Programmer Numbers
      • Restricted Accounts
      • Catalog Format
      • Strings in BASIC
        • Reading String Data
        • Printing Strings
        • Inputting Strings
        • Line Input
        • Working with Strings
        • The CHANGE Statement
        • The CHR$ Function
      • Program Chaining
      • Disk Data Files
        • File Records
        • Opening a Disk File
        • Reading/Writing Disk Files
        • Closing/Deleting Disk Files
      • DECtape Data Files
        • DECtape File Records
        • Opening a DECtape File
        • Reading/Writing DECtape Files
        • Closing DECtape Files
        • Using DECtape Data Files with OS/8 FORTRAN
      • Line Printer Output
      • Paper Tape Output
      • Internal Data Codes
        • Numeric Data
        • String Data
      • Error Messages
    • FOCAL
      • Using FOCAL Commands
      • FOCAL Overview
      • Numbers
      • Variable Names
      • Arithmetic Operations
        • Priority of Arithmetic Operations
        • Enclosures
      • Input/Output Commands
        • TYPE Command
        • ASK Command
          • Text Output with ASK
      • Computational Command
        • SET Command
      • Control Commands
        • GO or GOTO Command
        • IF Command
          • IF with Less Than Three Line Numbers
          • Arithmetic Comparison with IF Command
        • DO Command
          • Nested DO
        • RETURN Command
        • QUIT Command
        • FOR Command
          • FOR with a DO
          • Nested FOR and DO
        • Subscripted Variables
        • COMMENT or CONTINUE Command
      • Edit Commands
        • WRITE or WRITE ALL Command
        • ERASE and ERASE ALL Commands
        • MODIFY Commands
      • Library Comands
        • LIBRARY SAVE
        • LIBRARY CALL
        • LIBRARY DELETE
        • LIBRARY LIST
        • Error Messages with Library Commands
      • Estimating Program Length
      • Debugging
        • Using the Error Diagnostics
        • Using the Trace Feature
      • FOCAL Functions
        • Sine Function (FSIN)
        • Cosine Function (FCOS)
        • Exponential Function (FEXP)
        • Logarithm Function (FLOG)
        • Arctangent Function (FATN)
        • Square Root Function (FSQT)
        • Absolute Value Function (FABS)
        • Sign Part Function (FSGN)
        • Integer Part Function (FITR)
        • Random Number Function (FRAN)
      • FOCAL Output Operations
      • Control Characters
      • Reading FOCAL Paper Tapes
    • FORTRAN-D
      • Calling FORTRAN-D
      • Using FORTRAN-D
      • Line Format
        • Statement Numbers
        • Statement Continuation Character
      • FORTRAN Statements
        • Comment Statements
        • Character Set
        • Constants
          • Integer Constants
          • Real Constants
          • Fixed and Floating-Point Representation
        • Variables
          • Integer Variables
          • Real Variables
          • Scalar Variables
          • Array Variables
        • DIMENSION Statement
      • FORTRAN Arithmetic
        • Arithmetic Operators
          • Use of Parentheses
        • Arithmetic Expressions
        • Arithmetic Statements
          • Multiple Replacement
          • Mode Conversion
        • Functions
      • Program Control
        • END Statement
        • STOP Statement
        • PAUSE Statement
        • GO TO Statement
        • Example of Integer Summation
        • IF Statement
        • DO Loops
          • CONTINUE Statement
        • Computed GO TO
      • FORTRAN Input/Output
        • Data Formats
          • ASCII Coded Data
          • Binary Coded Data
        • Input/Output Statements
          • ACCEPT and TYPE Statements
          • READ and WRITE Statements
        • Variable Specification in I/O Statements
        • FORMAT Statement
        • The A Format Specification
        • Input Formats
          • Integer Values -- the I Format
          • Real Values -- the E Format
        • Output Formats
          • E and I Formats
          • Format Control Specifications
          • Hollerith Output
      • Implementation Notes
        • Double Subscripts
        • Substatement Feature
        • Error Checking
        • FORTRAN-D Source Program Restrictions
        • FORTRAN-D Compiler and Operating System Core Map
      • FORTRAN-D Error Diagnostics
        • Compiler Compilation Diagnostics
        • Compiler Systems Diagnostics
        • Operating System Diagnostics
    • PAL-D Assembler
      • Introduction
      • EduSystem 50 PAL-D
      • Example of a PAL-D Program
    • Utility Program
      • Symbolic Editor
      • Loader
      • Octal Debugging Technique
      • Catalog (CAT)
      • System Status (SYSTAT)
    • Programs for Paper Tape and DECtape Control
      • PIP (Peripheral Interchange Program)
        • PIP Conventions
        • Paper Tape to Disk Transfers
        • Disk to Paper Tape Transfers
        • High-Speed Reader/Punch Assignments
        • BIN Format File Transfers
        • Moving Disk Files
        • Deleting Disk Files
        • BASIC File Transfers
        • SAVE Format File Transfers
      • COPY Program
        • Using and Calling COPY
        • Loading Files from DECtape
        • Saving Disk Files on DECtape
        • Listing Directories
        • Deleting Files
        • Deleting all Existing Files on a Device
        • Example of COPY Usage
    • Advanced Monitor Commands
      • Introduction
      • Control of User Programs
      • Defining Disk Files
        • Creating a Disk Files
        • Opening and Closing a File
        • Extending, Reducing, and Renaming a Disk File
        • Protection Codes
        • Error Conditions
      • Saving and Restoring User Programs
      • Utility Commands
    • Writing Assembly Language Programs
      • Introduction
      • Console I/O
      • Files and Disk I/O
      • Assignable Devices
      • Program Control
      • Program and System Status
      • PDP-8 Compatibility
    • Storage Allocation
      • Storage Map
      • File Directories
      • Project-Programmer Numbers
  • Appendix A Read-In Mode Loader
  • Appendix B Character Codes
  • Appendix C EduSystem 50 Monitor Command Summary
  • Appendix D EduTest

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